A History of the Development & Application of Whey Protein Concentrates

Contents About the author Acknowledgments

1. Introduction – setting the historical context

2. Membrane development – 1960s to 1980s Cellulose acetate Polysulfone & polyethersulfone Thin film composite

3. Systems & applications developments – 1970s to 1980s Reverse osmosis Ultrafiltration – 1970 to 1985 in the USA Utrafiltration in Europe – 1975 to 1985 Developments in New Zealand – 1960 to 1990 From the mid 1980s – the domination of the spiral wound membrane A further key development in the 1980s

4. Whey protein isolate – a new ingredient

5. Key developments since 1990 Agglomeration / instantisation and whey protein in sports nutrition Further developments in whey protein fractionation and whey protein hydrolysates for infant formula Whey protein fractionation Whey protein hydrolysis

6. Whey proteins and advances in cheesemaking technology Increasing cheese output Increasing cheese yield

7. The current spectrum of whey protein products – ingredients & their applications Filler Functional applications Nutritional applications Bioactivity of whey proteins

8. A look into the future New markets New technologies New and improved products New areas of application 9. Further reading 10. Abbreviations