History of Whey Protein Concentrate

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1. Introduction – setting the historical context                                                                

2. Membrane development – 1960s to 1980s  

    Cellulose acetate    

    Polysulfone & polyethersulfone      

    Thin film composite 


3. Systems & applications developments – 1970s to 1980s  

    Reverse osmosis

    Ultrafiltration – 1970 to 1985 in the USA  

    Utrafiltration in Europe – 1975 to 1985    

    Developments in New Zealand – 1960 to 1990  

    From the mid 1980s – the domination of the spiral wound membrane 

    A further key development in the 1980s                                                          

4. Whey protein isolate – a new ingredient                                                   

5. Key developments since 1990      

    Agglomeration / instantisation and whey protein in sports nutrition  

    Further developments in whey protein fractionation and whey protein hydrolysates for infant formula

    Whey protein fractionation      

    Whey protein hydrolysis   


6. Whey proteins and advances in cheesemaking technology  

    Increasing cheese output    

    Increasing cheese yield                                                                


7. The current spectrum of whey protein products – ingredients & their



    Functional applications    

    Nutritional applications            

    Bioactivity of whey proteins                                                                        


8. A look into the future     

    New markets    

    New technologies        

    New and improved products        

    New areas of application                                                                        


9. Further reading                                     

10. Abbreviations